If you’re curious about cannabis, it’s important to understand the basics of the plant. Throughout history, the definition of cannabis has undergone numerous changes. However, today we know that there is only one cannabis plant – the botanical species Cannabis Sativa L. This species can be divided into three main chemovars: Cannabis Sativa, Cannabis Indica, and Cannabis Ruderalis. These chemovars can be distinguished by factors such as plant size, leaf shape, and chemical properties. Learning more about these different chemovars will help you better understand the unique qualities and effects of each cannabis strain.

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Cannabis Sativa, Indica, Ruderalis


Get to know cannabis, one of the world’s fastest-growing plants that originates from the northwest Himalayan region and is closely related to hops. With its slightly hairy, vertical stem, cannabis can reach up to 5 meters in height and is naturally grown annually. It’s a dioecious plant, meaning male and female plants grow separately, but hermaphroditic varieties also exist. Male plants have lighter stems and lots of pollen, crucial for pollination, while female plants produce seeds and rich fiber. Pollination is achieved easily through wind, and bees aren’t necessary.

Hemp field

Pollen from male cannabis plants is caught on the female plant, which produces more resin to maximize pollination and seed production? The highest concentration of resin is found on the flower or bud and leaves closest to it. Under a microscope, tiny hair-like outgrowths called trichomes with a cap on top can be seen on the plant. When the trichomes appear in a milky color, it indicates peak maturity and maximum cannabinoid content. Beyond this point, the plant’s THC and CBD content begins to degrade and convert to CBN, making it suitable for different purposes. Despite various labels like ganja, pot, or marijuana, they all refer to the same plant – cannabis.

Industrial Hemp

Industrial hemp is a specific type of cannabis that has been used for industrial purposes throughout history, including making ropes, sails, and clothing. Today, it is still used for these purposes, but the term “industrial hemp” refers to cannabis plants that have a THC level lower than 0.2% or 0.3% (depending on local laws). This cannabis is primarily grown for cultivation and processing, and hemp farmers have a limited list of cannabis strains that are legal to grow. However, industrial hemp has experienced a resurgence in recent years due to its versatile nature and potential to create sustainable products.

Unlike “stronger” cannabis, which is primarily used for medicinal or recreational purposes, industrial hemp has a wide range of uses. It can be used to make clothing, paper, biofuels, building materials, and even food products. Hemp seeds are rich in protein and essential fatty acids, making them a popular ingredient in health foods. In addition, hemp fiber is durable and eco-friendly, making it an excellent alternative to traditional materials like cotton and synthetic fabrics.

Despite the benefits of industrial hemp, its cultivation and use are still heavily regulated in many countries. This has led to some confusion and misinformation about the plant, particularly when it comes to its relationship with marijuana. However, with increased education and advocacy efforts, more people are beginning to understand the potential of industrial hemp and its role in creating sustainable products for the future.

Medical Cannabis

Also known as medical marijuana, refers to the use of the plant and its extracts to treat medical conditions. It contains higher percentages of THC and CBD, which have been found to have medicinal properties. While it was popularized during the commercialization of cannabis in the US and Canada, it has a long history of use in traditional medicine. In some countries and states, medical cannabis can be obtained with a prescription from a qualified healthcare provider. Its potential therapeutic applications include pain management, relief from nausea and vomiting, and reduction of inflammation, among others. The use of medical cannabis is a rapidly evolving area of research, and there is growing interest in its potential as an alternative treatment option for various medical conditions.

Pot / Weed

The terms “pot” and “weed” are often used to refer to the cannabis plant, specifically varieties with higher levels of THC, the psychoactive compound that produces the characteristic “high” associated with its use. While these terms have a long history in popular culture, they can be misleading and stigmatizing, as they are often associated with illegal or recreational use. It’s important to remember that this plant has a range of potential therapeutic applications and is increasingly being recognized for its medical benefits. Furthermore, there are many different strains and varieties of cannabis, each with their own unique chemical profiles and potential uses. Whether you are a medical patient seeking relief from symptoms, or simply interested in exploring the potential benefits, it’s important to educate yourself about the different strains and products available, and to approach cannabis use in a responsible and informed manner.


The term “ganja” is often associated with Rastafarian culture, but its origins can be traced back to ancient India. It comes from the Hindu word “ganjika,” which means “powerful preparation from Cannabis Sativa” in Sanskrit. Over time, the term evolved and became synonymous with cannabis in various cultures around the world, particularly in the Caribbean and Jamaica. Today, it remains a popular term for cannabis in many regions, often used to describe a particular strain with specific characteristics.


One of the most well-known and controversial names for cannabis is “marijuana.” This term was coined by Harry Jacob Anslinger, the first commissioner of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, who launched a nationwide anti-cannabis campaign in the 1930s. Anslinger deliberately chose the Spanish word “marijuana” to associate the plant with Mexican immigrants and create a negative public image.

The exact origin of the word “marijuana” is uncertain, but it is believed to have come from Mexican Spanish. Some scholars speculate that the word has its roots in the Aztec language, but this theory remains unproven. It is often falsely claimed that “marijuana” is derived from the Spanish name “Maria Juana” or “Mary Jane,” but this is actually a flawed human etymology.

Despite its dubious origins, the term “marijuana” became widely used in the United States to refer to cannabis and was employed in anti-cannabis propaganda. The negative connotations associated with the word continue to this day, and many advocates for legalization prefer to use the plant’s scientific name or other less stigmatizing terms.


Cannabis can be cultivated using three different methods, each with its own unique set of advantages and disadvantages. Indoor cultivation, cultivation in a greenhouse, and outdoor cultivation.

Indoor Cultivation

Indoor cultivation provides growers with complete control over the cultivation process, including room temperature, air flow, and light manipulation. This level of control allows growers to create a sterile artificial environment, which is ideal for growing high-quality plant. However, this advantage can also be a disadvantage. If toxins are produced indoors, it can be challenging to eliminate them. Moreover, if the behavior of the  plant and the CO2 content in the air are not closely monitored, the plants can emit toxins that can lead to CO2 poisoning.

Cannabis plants growing under artificial light
Indoor Cannabis Growing Facility

Some modern genetics have already been adapted to indoor growth and perform better in this environment. In fact, there are many hybrid strains of cannabis on the market that are specifically designed for indoor cultivation. Therefore, some growers prefer indoor cultivation to ensure optimal growth conditions and maximize their yield.

Indoor cultivation also provides additional benefits, such as year-round cultivation, increased control over pest infestations, and increased privacy. However, the high cost of electricity and equipment needed for indoor cultivation can be a significant drawback.

Greenhouse Cultivation

Growing cannabis in a greenhouse comes with both advantages and disadvantages. One significant drawback is the limited supply of sunlight that the plants receive. To compensate, growers may block the sun at certain points to “trick” the plant into blooming earlier than it normally would. However, growing under natural sunlight allows cannabis to generate natural and full spectrum terpenes, which may result in higher quality product. Despite efforts to mimic natural sunlight with artificial lighting, the quality of greenhouse-grown cannabis cannot be compared to that grown outdoors under the sun.

On the other hand, greenhouse cultivation has several benefits, including lower energy costs compared to indoor growing, as it does not require as much energy-hungry artificial lighting and airflow systems. Greenhouse and outdoor cultivation also have a lower negative impact on the environment, making them more sustainable options.

Despite these advantages, there are also some disadvantages to greenhouse cultivation. Growers need to take into account their geographic location, local weather patterns, and different seasons throughout the year. Unlike indoor cultivators who can grow cannabis year-round and harvest multiple times a year, greenhouse growers may face limitations due to changes in sunlight availability and temperature fluctuations.

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Cannabis Greenhouse Cultivation

Outdoor Cultivation

Outdoor cultivation is the most natural way of growing cannabis. It does not require the use of artificial lights, airflow systems, or light-blocking systems. Instead, all that is required is land, sun, and water. While this may seem like a simple and straightforward process, outdoor cultivation does come with some inherent challenges.

One significant disadvantage of outdoor cultivation is exposure to all of nature’s elements, including temperature fluctuations, extreme weather events, and parasites, all of which can have an impact on the plants quality. However, there are also several advantages to outdoor cultivation that cannot be replicated by indoor or greenhouse methods.

For example, outdoor-grown cannabis is exposed to a wider, more intensive spectrum of light that penetrates deeper into the plant. This advantage allows the plant to express its genetic potential on the highest possible level, resulting in high-quality cannabis. Additionally, outdoor cultivation is more sustainable and environmentally friendly than indoor or greenhouse methods, as it does not require as much energy consumption or specialized equipment.

While outdoor cultivation may have some drawbacks, it remains a popular option among growers who value natural, high-quality cannabis. By carefully selecting the right location and taking measures to protect the plants from environmental factors, outdoor growers can produce exceptional product that meets the needs of consumers and the demands of the market.


Cannabis is a plant that grows quickly, and understanding its growth process is crucial for healthy growth and reaction to various events during the six phases of its natural growth process.

Phase 1: Seed Planting

The first stage is seed planting. For cannabis to grow into a healthy plant, it is essential that the seed is healthy and undamaged. Furthermore, the soil must be correctly prepared and contain all the required nutrients. The most suitable soil should have a neutral pH level between 6 and 7.5, and if grown outdoors, it is recommended to test a soil sample for better results. The soil must also be moist, but not soaked. For optimal growth, the soil temperature must be at least 10 degrees Celsius and exposed to at least eight hours of direct sunlight.

Phase 2: Germination

After a few days, the seed starts to germinate, depending on sun and temperature conditions. In this stage, the seed starts to develop its route to be. In good conditions, it can take from 5 to 10 days to emerge. When it can be seen on the surface, it already created a small route and on top, two small leaves appear, from which the plant starts to draw sunlight. The seed sprout continues to the seedling stage.

Phase 3: Seedling Stage

The seedling stage lasts from 2 to 3 weeks. Larger leaves start to grow with each set of nodes. It is defined as a seedling until it produces 5 to 7 arms on each leaf. In this phase, the plant is still very sensitive to change, such as unsuitable irrigation, strong UV light, and extreme weather conditions. Therefore, some growers tend to grow the plants in a safer environment first, such as a greenhouse, and move them outdoors at a later stage.

Phase 4: Vegetative Growth

In the vegetative growth phase, the plant gains most of its mass. It rapidly grows vertically and horizontally as it prepares for the flowering stage. Some growers cure the plant at this stage. With curing the leaves at the bottom, cannabis can allocate more energy for flower growth, and more nutrients are allocated to the top part of the plant. However, incorrect curing can cause more damage than good, such as making the plant more susceptible to disease or causing a shock. Vegetative growth can last from 3 to 16 weeks. For growers who want to preserve the plant’s genetics, they can cut the leaves and use them as clones. However, leaves used as clones are not suitable to cut off if the plant is already in the flowering stage, as it cannot go back to vegetative growth.

Phase 5: Flowering Stage

In the flowering stage, flowers on the plant are produced. Flowering starts when the daylight cycle changes from 16+ hours of daylight to 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of night. This usually happens naturally between the months of September and October, at the season change. At that time, the Earth moves away from the Sun, and the light spectrum changes from cold blue to warm yellow. In the beginning of this phase, the gender of each plant can also be clearly seen. Male plants reveal their gender prior to female plants and have a typical pollen bag on them. If male plants are not removed from the plantation, they can pollinate female plants. Pollinated female plants use a lot of energy to produce new seeds for the next generation of cannabis. Consequently, flowers with lower values of CBD and THC are produced, and it lowers the grower’s yield with processing cannabis to the final product.

Phase 6: Harvest

Cannabis harvest is one of the most complicated parts in the entire process. Firstly, we have to mention that harvests differ a lot depending on what the final product is. For example, to harvest cannabis for CBD is different than to harvest it for fiber. While you can harvest the plant for fiber with specialized machines and equipment, harvesting it for flowers (CBD) is done by hand, to maintain high level of quality. In this way, we protect the valuable flower and prevent contamination. Flowers also have to be correctly dried (naturally or in a drying machine), and cured to achieve maximum quality for consumption.

The timing of the harvest is also important. The ideal time to harvest cannabis is when the trichomes (the small, crystal-like structures on the plant) start to turn a milky-white color. At this point, the plant has reached its highest level of cannabinoid content, which contributes to the potency and quality of the final product. However, harvesting too early or too late can result in a lower-quality product.

Once harvested, it can be processed in various ways depending on the desired end product. For example, it can be used for smoking, vaporizing, edibles, or tinctures. The processing method can also affect the potency and quality of the final product, so it is important to carefully consider the intended use and processing method.

In summary, understanding the growth phases of cannabis is crucial for healthy growth and a high-quality final product. From seed planting to harvest, each phase requires specific care and attention to ensure optimal growth and maximum yield. Proper soil preparation, temperature control, and nutrition are important in the early phases, while attention to lighting and environment become critical in later phases. Ultimately, the final product quality depends on a combination of genetics, growing conditions, and processing methods, and each step must be carefully considered to achieve the desired outcome.


While cannabis has long been associated with its recreational and medicinal uses, it also has numerous benefits for the environment. From reducing deforestation to serving as a sustainable building material, cannabis has the potential to revolutionize various industries in a more environmentally-friendly way. In this section, we will explore the different ways in which cannabis can have a positive impact on the environment and how it can be utilized to create a more sustainable future.

CO2 Absorption & Air Filtration

Cannabis has long been known for its medicinal and recreational properties, but did you know that it also has numerous positive environmental effects? One of the most significant benefits of cannabis is its ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, making it a natural environment cleaner. In fact, for every ton of cannabis grown, 1.63 tons of CO2 are removed from the atmosphere, which is more efficient than trees in absorbing CO2. Additionally, cannabis helps filter the air we breathe, creating a healthier environment for all. Read on to discover more of the ways in which cannabis can have a positive impact on the environment.

Soil Regeneration

Cannabis cultivation has numerous positive environmental effects, including soil regeneration. One reason for this is that cannabis stems and leaves are rich in nutrients. As the leaves fall off the plant during growth, they create hummus in the soil, enriching it with essential nutrients for the next crop cycle. Additionally, cannabis leftovers from the harvest can be returned to the soil, further enhancing the soil’s health and supporting future growth. These natural processes make cannabis an ideal crop for sustainable and eco-friendly farming practices.

Sustainable Farming

Sustainable farming practices are critical to maintaining the health of our planet, and cannabis cultivation can be a part of this effort. Crop rotation is a key aspect of sustainable farming, and cannabis is an ideal crop for rotation with other plants. As an annual plant, cannabis can reach full size in just four months, allowing for more frequent crop rotations and helping to maintain optimal soil health. By growing cannabis in rotation with other crops, farmers can enrich the soil, improve soil quality, and ultimately produce higher quality crops. In addition, cannabis cultivation can also help reduce the use of harmful pesticides and fertilizers, further benefiting the environment.

Pesticide Free

Cannabis is a true environmental blessing as it can be grown without the need for harmful pesticides or herbicides. Unlike cotton and other natural fibers, cannabis is naturally resistant to pests and does not require any toxic chemicals to protect it from insects or other threats. The use of pesticides not only damages the environment but also poses serious health risks to humans, including an increased risk of cancer. Moreover, the widespread use of pesticides has been linked to the destruction of ecosystems and the elimination of certain animal species. By growing cannabis, we can help protect the environment and preserve biodiversity.

Soil Erosion Prevention

Cannabis plants have an extensive and strong root system that plays a vital role in preventing soil erosion, a significant issue in modern agriculture. The roots of cannabis plants interlock with the soil, forming a natural barrier against soil erosion caused by wind and water. Moreover, the plant’s roots help to connect and bind the soil particles together, making the soil more stable and resistant to erosion.

In addition, cannabis plants have been found to regenerate damaged soil by improving soil structure and increasing microbial activity. The roots of cannabis plants release organic compounds that enhance the soil’s fertility, making it more suitable for growing other crops. Furthermore, the presence of cannabis plants in the soil can reduce soil compaction, increase water retention, and promote the growth of beneficial microorganisms, leading to a healthier and more vibrant ecosystem.

Saves Water

Cannabis offers a unique advantage when it comes to water consumption in agriculture. Thanks to its natural self-irrigation property, cannabis plants require significantly less water for growth compared to other crops. This is a crucial factor for regions that suffer from drought or where water is scarce. In contrast, crops such as soy, almonds, and cotton require vast amounts of water to grow, putting a tremendous strain on water resources. By choosing to cultivate cannabis, farmers can reduce their water consumption and contribute to the conservation of this vital resource.

All Parts Can Be Used

Cannabis is a versatile plant that can be used in many ways, and this has significant environmental benefits. One of the advantages of cannabis is that all parts of the plant can be used, which minimizes waste. The seeds and leaves can be used to create natural and nutritious food products, while the flowers and leaves can be used to make food supplements and cosmetics. The stems of the plant are also a valuable resource, as they can be used to produce high-quality natural fibers for clothing, ropes, and other products. By utilizing every part of the cannabis plant, we can reduce waste and minimize our impact on the environment.

Absorbs Toxic Metals

Cannabis possesses an incredible ability to absorb toxins from soil, making it an effective tool for phytoremediation. It is crucial to carefully select the soil for cultivation, as the plant can absorb contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticides from the soil. Interestingly, cannabis has been successfully used for soil decontamination after the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, where it absorbed radioactive cesium and strontium from the soil. This has led to the consideration of using cannabis for soil decontamination in other areas, including Fukushima. This remarkable ability of cannabis to absorb toxic metals from the soil has significant positive implications for the environment and human health.

Animal Habitat

Cannabis plants offer a great habitat for various animals, thanks to their large size and foliage. The dense and bushy structure of the plants makes it an ideal spot for small animals to take shelter and hide from predators. Additionally, the flowers of the cannabis plant produce an abundance of pollen, which is a vital source of food for bees and other pollinators. The seeds of the plant are also an essential food source for birds and other small animals. By providing habitat and food for wildlife, cannabis can contribute to a more diverse and thriving ecosystem.

Help Against Deforestation

Deforestation is a major environmental problem, and the loss of trees has a huge impact on the Earth’s climate and ecosystems. However, there is some hope in cannabis, which could play a role in combating deforestation. Cannabis is a fast-growing plant that can reach its full size in just four months, compared to the many years it takes for trees to mature. This means that cannabis could replace trees as a source for paper production, as it can produce much more material in a shorter period of time. Additionally, the stem of the cannabis plant contains a much higher percentage of cellulose than a tree, making it an even more efficient source for paper production.

By using cannabis instead of trees, we can help to preserve our forests and reduce the impact of deforestation. This has many benefits for the environment, including the preservation of biodiversity and the protection of vital ecosystems. In addition to its potential as a paper source, cannabis can also be used for a variety of other purposes, such as building materials, textiles, and biofuels. By embracing this versatile and sustainable plant, we can create a more sustainable future for ourselves and for the planet.

The advantages of cannabis that we have highlighted in this section are just the tip of the iceberg. The plant’s versatility and wide range of applications have numerous positive effects across multiple industries and processing procedures. It is clear that cannabis is a valuable natural resource with untapped potential, and further exploration of its benefits can lead to more sustainable and environmentally friendly practices.



Cannabis is an incredibly versatile plant that can be utilized in many ways across multiple industries. Below, we’ve highlighted just a few examples of its diverse uses:

Food Supplements

Cannabis has become a popular ingredient in the food supplement industry. The plant’s flower and leaf extracts are concentrated and mixed with fluids, such as CBD oil, for easy consumption. These supplements are designed to optimize the endocannabinoid system, which plays a crucial role in maintaining overall health and well-being. From tinctures and capsules to gummies and energy drinks, there are endless ways to incorporate cannabis into food supplements. Furthermore, research has shown that these supplements can provide relief for a variety of health conditions, such as chronic pain, anxiety, and inflammation.

Food (Superfood)

Cannabis is not only a versatile plant, but also a highly nutritious one. It contains a variety of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and protein. The different parts of the plant, including seeds, fresh leaves, and flowers, can be used to create a range of raw products. For instance, hemp seeds are a great source of protein and healthy fats, while fresh cannabis leaves can be brewed into a nutrient-rich tea. Cannabis can also be processed into various forms for culinary use, such as cannabis butter, milk, and coffee. These products not only add a unique flavor to dishes, but also provide a powerful nutritional boost, making cannabis a true superfood.


Hemp is a versatile plant with endless possibilities for use. It is not only durable but also very flexible, making it an amazing source of fiber. Historically, cannabis was used to create countless products before being replaced by cotton. Today, cannabis textiles are commonly mixed with organic cotton to create a variety of textile types, including T-shirts, shirts, pants, jackets, bags, hats, shoes, and many more. These textiles are not only fashionable but also environmentally friendly due to the sustainable and pesticide-free nature of cannabis cultivation. With its potential to replace less sustainable materials, the use of cannabis in textile production could help promote a more sustainable future.


Cannabis is a versatile plant that has the potential to revolutionize the fuel industry. It can be used to produce biofuels that are renewable and environmentally friendly. One of the biggest advantages of cannabis biofuel is that it can be used in any combustion engine car. Additionally, the performance of cannabis biofuel is comparable to that of traditional fossil fuels. With increasing concerns about climate change and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cannabis biofuels could play a significant role in achieving a sustainable future.


Cannabis has emerged as a sustainable and eco-friendly solution in the construction industry. With the rise of eco-consciousness, the demand for green buildings is increasing, and cannabis is playing a significant role in fulfilling this demand. Hempcrete, made from the woody core of the cannabis plant, is a versatile building material that can be used for walls, roofs, insulation, and flooring. Unlike regular concrete, Hempcrete is breathable, which means it can regulate humidity and prevent mold growth. It is also a superior insulator, keeping the interior cool in summers and warm in winters.

Another advantage of Hempcrete is that it is lightweight, reducing transportation costs and making it easy to handle during construction. It is a carbon-negative material, which means that it absorbs more carbon dioxide than it releases during its production and usage. This can have a significant impact on reducing the carbon footprint of buildings.

In addition to Hempcrete, other cannabis-based materials such as hemp fiberboard and hemp insulation can also be used in construction. These materials are non-toxic, biodegradable, and provide a healthier indoor environment for occupants. With the versatility and sustainability of cannabis-based construction materials, it is no wonder that the cannabis industry is seeing a rise in demand for their use in building and construction.


Cannabis can be used in many ways to benefit animals. It can be used as a litter for animals such as cats, rabbits and guinea pigs as it is a natural and biodegradable option. It is also an excellent material to create a warm and cozy nest for pets. In addition, cannabis is a source of high-quality protein and healthy fats, making it a valuable ingredient for pet foods and supplements. Cannabis extracts can also be added to pet food and supplements to improve the overall health and well-being of animals. In addition, cannabis fibers can be used to make pet toys that are durable and environmentally friendly, making them a great alternative to plastic toys. Overall, cannabis can provide many benefits to animals, including comfort, nutrition and entertainment.


Cannabis has become increasingly popular in the cosmetics industry due to its numerous benefits for the skin. One of the most commonly used products is cannabis seed oil, which contains perfect Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, as well as a variety of vitamins that provide essential nutrients for the skin. Additionally, cannabis extract is also used in some cosmetics products for its therapeutic properties.

Cannabis-infused cosmetics can be found in various forms, including balms, creams, lotions, soaps, and more. These products have been known to moisturize the skin, promote healing of damaged skin, and help alleviate various skin conditions. The CBD and other cannabinoids found in cannabis are particularly beneficial for these purposes.

Moreover, cannabis cosmetics have been praised for their anti-aging properties, helping to reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. They also have anti-inflammatory properties, which can help calm the skin and reduce redness.

Overall, cannabis-infused cosmetics offer a natural and effective alternative to traditional skincare products. As more research is conducted on the therapeutic benefits of cannabis, we can expect to see even more innovative uses of this plant in the cosmetics industry.


Cannabis has been utilized for various industrial purposes throughout history. The strong and durable fibers of the plant make it an ideal material for producing ropes and textiles, including sails, clothing, bags, and shoes. In fact, some of the strongest ropes in the world have been made from cannabis. Henry Ford even famously produced a car with panels made from hemp fiber. In addition to textiles, cannabis can also be used in the production of building materials such as hempcrete, a thermodynamically efficient and eco-friendly alternative to traditional concrete. The versatility of the plant allows for endless possibilities in the industrial sector, with ongoing research and development exploring new ways to harness its properties.

Dragon Cannabis